Today we bring you more information about the planet Mars on our website; Mars, or the red planet, is the second smallest planet in the solar system after Mercury and the fourth planet farthest from Mars from the sun. The name Mars in Arabic is derived from the Latin word for “his command” and the owner of red spots. “Mars” was the god of war among the Greeks because of its red-orange color, which resembles the color of blood.
The diameter of the planet Mars was estimated at about 6792 km, which is similar to the radius of the Earth and its area is half the size of the Earth, and Mars revolves around the sun at about 228 million km. Two moons, Deimos and Phobos in the Martian sky. she has. Deimos in Greek means fear and felus means fear and they are small and disorganized.
When the surface temperature of Mars drops to 27°C and below -133°C, you can easily see Mars near Earth with the naked eye, and this happens every two years.
Mars is similar to Earth in terms of climate in its four-season composition, and the north and south poles are covered by ice layers, and although it is not known exactly who discovered Mars, it was known at least 4,000 years ago and was drawn by scientists in the past. Astronomy in civilization by the pharaoh (Giovanni Schiapar), but the Italian scientist Giovanni Schiapar who drew his map for the first time showed a set of lines and channels.
More details can be found: The interior of Mars and its terrain
You can also learn more through: Information about the planet Saturn and its cosmic characteristics
Why is the red planet called?
Since ancient times, the Greeks adopted the planet Mars as a symbol of war and blood because of its red color, and in the historical interview that occurs every 15 or 17 years, when it approaches the earth, it appears as a bright red star in the sky, and its red color is the result of an increase in the proportion of iron (III) oxide dust on it. He appears. Iron (III) oxide in its surface and atmosphere is a substance (rust) that affects some minerals by exposure to oxygen or water in the atmosphere.
Scientists believe that this substance was the result of the interaction of iron metal with water and air when there was a lot of liquid water on the planet in the past, then this substance was transferred to the rest of the planet by weather factors such as clouds and winds, and the red color is not the only color that covers the planet, Even this color. The “rust” material ranges from bright orange to black.
The color of the sky and atmosphere on Mars is red, and this is due to the emission of red particles carried by the dust due to the strong winds from the storms that the planet is famous for most of the year.
More details can be found at: Information about the planets of the solar system and how the solar system evolved.
The planet consists of three layers, namely; Peel, tone, core and composition of each layer are as follows:
- Crust: The average thickness of the planet’s crust is 50 km, and the maximum height is 125 km, and it consists of the rocky material of the basalt element, as in the formation of the planet and the crust of the moon. how much. Some parts of the southern mountainous regions have a high concentration of calcium pyroxene with high concentrations of olivine and hematite.
The surface of the planet also contains the largest volcano in the solar system, which is the “Moon Olympus” volcano located on the Tarsis plateau, in addition to that the crust of Mars is rich in many minerals such as iron, silicon, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, potassium and many volcanic rocks.
- The Curtain: It contains silicon, oxygen, iron and magnesium similar to the Earth’s curtain layer because it mostly consists of peridotite rocks and shows an area called “Indigo Fushi” with a thickness of 1.4-1.9 thousand km.
Therefore, it is the largest of the layers as rocks of high temperature and density, and this is the main reason for the movement in the plates of the earth’s crust; As a result of the large temperature difference between the top and bottom of the curtain.
- The core: The core of Mars is half its area and usually consists of the minerals iron, nickel and sulfur, but scientists differed among themselves in the composition of the core, some said that it could only be liquid or its center could be iron and its outer surface. liquid.
It is divided into two parts: –
- External core: 2300 km thick, 3400 km radius, contains many elements such as iron and constitutes 80% of lead, nickel and uranium, and the external temperature is 4030 ° C, and 5730 ° C in the interior.
- Inner core: It is a metal ball consisting of iron and nickel as two main components, 2500 km wide and the internal temperature is between 5000-6000 degrees Celsius.
climate on Mars
- Mars’ climate is very similar to Earth’s. This is due to the presence of polar glaciers and the seasonal changes that occur during the four seasons, in addition to the many radical and noticeable differences, he has conducted extensive research on this issue, as these differences indicate the existence of life for any planet on Mars. No, Mars’ climate is cooler and less hot than Earth’s, because Mars is farther from the Sun than it is from Jupiter.
- Also, this planet is one of the most similar planets to Earth, as it contains a percentage of oxygen and some other air components, but to varying degrees according to the percentage of each component in its atmosphere.
- It also has a group of satellites formed around the atmosphere of Mars that work in the gravitational balance between the planet’s sun and the rest of the solar system planets of Mercury, Venus and Jupiter.
- In the United States, many studies and researches have been carried out on the basic components that make up the soil of Mars and whether it is suitable for agriculture, and whether it has suitable environmental properties such as carbon dioxide and some stimulants for the soil, as well as for the water supply. Mars growth is subject to cultivation, but under certain conditions, these conditions may be too expensive, so it cannot be used.
- Also, education can be grown on Earth and not on Mars itself, so it is not beneficial to the planet itself.
- The difference in the proportion of components in the atmosphere of Mars makes it uninhabitable.
- The planet’s temperature is also too high for humans to bear.
- And scientific research in the United States confirmed that the dome of the planet is too weak to retreat from it.
- Some areas, such as the Dahab region in Egypt, have a large number of cracks that can be clearly seen using a ground-based space telescope.
So, we have provided you with information about the planet Mars. You can leave a comment below the article to learn more, and we will respond to you immediately.